Lymphoma, Causes, Symptoms and Risk Factors


A cancer of the lymphatic system, which is a component of the body's defense against infection, is lymphoma. Spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes (lymph glands), and bone marrow are components of the lymphatic system. Any of those locations as well as other organs throughout the body may be affected by lymphoma. Lymphoma comes in numerous forms. Primary subtypes include:

  • Hodgkin disease (formerly Hodgkin lymphoma)
  • Nodular lymphoma

Which treatment is best for you depending on the type and severity of your lymphoma. Lymphoma can be treated with chemotherapy, immunotherapy medications, radiation therapy, a bone marrow transplant, or a combination of these therapies.


Lymphoma symptoms and signs may include:

  • Swollen but painless lymph nodes in your neck, armpits, or groyne.
  • Persistent fatigue
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Itchy skin


The exact cause of lymphoma is unknown. But it begins when a lymphocyte, a type of white blood cell that fights infection, undergoes a genetic alteration. The mutation gives the cell the go-ahead to divide rapidly, resulting in a large number of ill lymphocytes that keep procreating. The cells can also survive even if the mutation would have caused other normal cells to perish. This results in the enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver as well as an excessive buildup of sick and ineffective lymphocytes in the lymph nodes.

Risk Factors

The risk of lymphoma can increase due to a number of factors:

Age: Some types of lymphoma are more commonly diagnosed in those over 55, whilst others are more typically discovered in young adults. To be a man Lymphoma is considerably more common in men than in women. a weakened immune system Lymphoma is more likely to develop in those who have immune system problems or take immunosuppressive drugs. Developing certain infections: Lymphoma risk is increased by illnesses like Helicobacter pylori and the Epstein-Barr virus.


  • Physical examination is one of the tests and processes used to diagnose lymphoma. The spleen, liver, and lymph nodes in your neck, underarm, and groyne are all examined by your doctor for swelling.
  • Removing a lymph node for analysis: Your doctor might suggest having a lymph node biopsy surgery to remove all or part of a lymph node for laboratory testing. Modern testing can identify the cells at issue and determine whether lymphoma cells are present.
  • Blood tests: Blood tests that count the number of cells in a sample of your blood can help your doctor better determine the diagnosis of your ailment.
  • Removing a bone marrow sample for examination: During a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy process, a needle is placed into your hipbone to remove a sample of your bone marrow.
  • Imaging tests: Your doctor may recommend imaging tests to look for lymphoma symptoms in other areas of your body. A few possible tests include positron emission tomography, CT, and MRI.


  • Depending on the type and stage of your condition, your general health, and your preferences, you should choose the proper lymphoma therapies. As many cancer cells as feasible are to be eliminated during treatment in order to put the condition into remission.
  • Treatments for lymphoma include: Active surveillance: Some lymphoma varieties progress very slowly. When lymphoma symptoms and signs interfere with your regular activities, you and your doctor may decide to postpone treatment. You might get testing every so often to keep an eye on your health till then.
  • Chemotherapy: Drugs are used in chemotherapy to kill rapidly proliferating cells, such as cancer cells. Depending on the particular medications you receive, the pharmaceuticals may be given to you as a tablet in addition to the usual venous infusion.
  • Radiation therapy employs powerful energy beams, such as protons and X-rays, to destroy cancer cells.
  • Bone marrow transplant: Also known as a stem cell transplant, a bone marrow transplant entails suppressing your bone marrow with strong doses of chemotherapy and radiation. Then, either from your own body or from a donor, healthy bone marrow stem cells are injected into your blood, where they go to your bones and regenerate your bone marrow.
  • Additional therapies: Targeted therapies that target particular abnormalities in your cancer cells are among the additional medications used to treat lymphoma. Immunotherapy medications attack cancer cells by stimulating your immune system. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy is a specialist procedure that employs your body's immune system's T cells to attack cancer by genetically modifying them to do so.

Clinical Oncology: Case Reports

Clinical Oncology Case Reports is an international, peer-reviewed publication devoted to cancer research and clinical and medical oncology. Focusing on clinical and medical research, it is a high-impact interdisciplinary publication. Everyone who is seriously interested in cancer treatment should read the journal. Readers are constantly aware of recent developments in both related and their own fields due to its transdisciplinary approach. The Journal's coverage of malignant diseases and their treatments, such as systemic therapy, radiation, pathology, diagnostics, and therapy.


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