Immune checkpoint inhibitors help in cancer treatment
A typical component of the immune system is immunological checkpoints. Their purpose is to stop an immune response from being so potent that it damages the body's healthy cells.
Immune checkpoints activate when partner proteins on other cells, such as some tumor cells, are recognized and bound by proteins on the surface of immune cells called T cells. These proteins are referred to as immune checkpoint molecules. The T cells receive an "off" signal when the checkpoint and partner proteins bind together. This may hinder the immune system's ability to eliminate the malignancy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are medications used in immunotherapy that prevent checkpoint proteins from interacting with their companion proteins. Because of this, the T cells are able to destroy cancer cells because the "off" signal is not sent.
List or Cancers which is treated with immune check point Inhibitor
- breast cancer
- bladder cancer
- liver cancer
- lung cancer
- head and neck cancer
- stomach cancer
- renal cell cancer
- Hodgkin lymphoma
- cervical cancer
- rectal cancer
- colon cancer
- any solid tumor that is not able to repair errors in its DNA that occur when the DNA is copied
- skin cancer, including melanoma
Immune check point inhibitors' side effects
Immune checkpoint inhibitor side effects can vary greatly from person to person. The adverse effects you may experience and how they affect you will depend on your pre-treatment health, the type of cancer you have, its stage, the immune checkpoint inhibitor you are using, and the dosage.
The occurrence of side effects, their severity, or when they will occur cannot be predicted with certainty by doctors or nurses. Therefore, it's critical to be aware of the warning signs and what to do when they materialize.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors frequently cause the following adverse effects:
Widespread inflammation is one of the immune checkpoint inhibitors' less common adverse effects. Inflammation can result in any of the following outcomes depending on which body organ is impacted:
- Symptoms of skin inflammation include skin changes, rashes, and itching; coughing and chest pains are signs of lung inflammation.
- Diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort brought on by colon inflammation
- Diabetes brought on by pancreatic inflammation
- Hepatitis (inflammation of the liver)
- Hypophysitis (inflammation of the pituitary gland)
- Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle)
- Nephritis (kidney inflammation), poor renal function, an overactive or underactive thyroid, and issues with the neurological system such muscle weakness, numbness, and difficulty breathing
Other serious side effects
Receiving these drugs may cause an infusion reaction in certain patients. This might cause symptoms similar to an allergic reaction, such as a fever, chills, facial flushing, and rash, itchy skin, feeling lightheaded, wheezing, and breathing difficulties. It's critical to inform your doctor or nurse as soon as possible if you have any of these side effects while taking one of these medications.
Autoimmune responses: These medications take away one of the immune system's defenses by targeting a checkpoint protein. The kidneys, liver, lungs, intestines, liver, or other organs may suffer substantial or even catastrophic complications when the body's immune system reacts by attacking other tissues or organs.
Any new negative symptoms must be reported to a member of your healthcare team immediately. The therapy may need to be stopped if serious side effects do occur, and your immune system may be reduced with high doses of corticosteroids.
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