Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment among Female Residents at Saudi Arabia


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes conditions such as Hypertension (HTN), Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, heart failure, and stroke . Although incidence of and mortality from CVD has declined in recent decades, CVD remains the leading cause of death worldwide in 2008, CVD caused 7.3 million deaths (30% of all mortalities). According to the World Health Organization, the majority of mortalities in Saudi Arabia were due to non-communicable diseases which accounted for 73% of all deaths, 37% were due to CVDs. According to the World Heart Federation, CVD is the most serious, neglected health problem affecting women worldwide. Almost two-thirds (64%) of women who die suddenly of CHD have had no previous symptoms. Modifiable risk factors clinically proven to influence cardiovascular health include diabetes, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, overweight or obesity, insufficient physical activity, unhealthy diet, and smoking. Other non-modifiable risk factors include age, gender, family history, and race. Previous studies have shown that tailoring messages on lifestyle counselling to an individual's readiness to change increases the likelihood of their success in adapting their modifiable risk factors for CVD. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular disease risk among females ≥30 years and readiness to make 2021 Vol.13 No.1:4 2 This article is available from: Archives of Medicine ISSN 1989-5216 lifestyle changes. The findings of this study could be used to support the development of an effective, community-based lifestyle modification program for women with moderate to high risk CVD in Saudi Arabia.

Research Methodology The protocol of this study followed the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (Institutional Review Board approval number: RJ13/039/J). Women received detailed information of the study and provided informed written consent before. This study was conducted in the National Guard Residential City, Jeddah, which consists of 1229 villas from 5 geographical sections. Women aged ≥30 years were screened from January to April 2015 and their Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) were calculated. Accordingly, participants with moderate to high CVD risk were included in another interventional study. Women aged <30 years, aged ≥30 years with low risk of CVD, who were pregnant, or who were diagnosed with CVD were excluded. All households in the residential city were visited and informed of the study by a group of trained research assistants. Eligible women were asked to participate in the research. By using the Coronary Risk Profile (CRP) questionnaire from Wellsource Inc. (Portland, OR, USA) [8], data on health history, smoking habits, physical activity, eating practices, social factors, and readiness for behavioural change to reduce CVD risk were collected.