Breast cancer Risk Factors and Preventions


Women are most likely to develop breast cancer than any other type of cancer. Breast cancer is a multi-step process that involves various cell types, and it is still difficult to prevent globally. Early diagnosis is among the greatest strategies to prevent breast cancer. The 5-year relative survival rate for patients with breast cancer is above 80% in several developed countries thanks to early identification. In the past ten years, there has been a substantial advancement in both our understanding of breast cancer and the development of preventative strategies. The etiology and mechanisms causing tumor medication resistance are revealed, and multiple genes connected to breast cancer are found by identifying breast cancer stem cells. People now have more pharmaceutical options for the chemoprevention of breast cancer, and biological prevention has recently been developed to improve patients' quality of life. We will discuss the most significant current research on the pathophysiology, related genes, risk factors, and preventative strategies of breast cancer. These findings represent a little step forward in the protracted fight against breast cancer.

Breast cancer is a metastatic cancer that is incurable and frequently metastasizes to other distant organs such the bone, liver, lung, and brain. Early detection of the condition might lead to a favorable prognosis and a high survival rate. The 5-year relative survival rate of breast cancer patients in North America is above 80% thanks to early identification of the disease. Mammography is a common screening technique that has been proven to drastically reduce mortality for identifying breast cancer. Other screening methods, such MRI, which is more sensitive than mammography, have also been utilized and studied over the past ten years. Numerous variables can raise the risk of getting breast cancer, including sex, ageing, estrogen, family history, gene mutations, and bad lifestyle choices. Women are more likely than males to develop breast cancer, and the number of cases among women is 100 times higher than among men. Although breast cancer mortality rates are on the decline in America due to extensive early identification and state-of-the-art medical interventions, incidence rates are nevertheless rising annually. Recent years have seen the development of biological therapies that have successfully cured breast cancer. We'll focus on current findings in the pathophysiology, related genes, risk factors, and preventions of breast cancer in this article.

Risk factors

Age: Aside from sexual orientation, getting older is one of the biggest risk factors for breast cancer because it makes the disease more likely to manifest. According to statistics from 2016, women over the ages of 40 and 60 made up 99.3% and 71.2%, respectively, of all breast cancer-related fatalities in America. As a result, women who are 40 years of age or older need to obtain a mammography screening before.

Family history: A family history is a factor in almost one-fourth of all cases of breast cancer. If a woman's mother or sibling already has the disease, her chances of getting it also increase. According to a UK cohort research involving over 113,000 women, women who have one first-degree cousin who has breast cancer are 1.75 times more likely to get the disease than those who don't have any affected relatives. Additionally, the risk increases by 2.5 times or more for women who have two or more first-degree relatives who have the disease. The mutations in breast cancer-related genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2 are partly responsible for the inherited propensity for breast cancer.

Reproductive variables: Breast cancer risk can be increased by reproductive factors such early menarche, delayed menopause, late age at first pregnancy, and low parity. For each year after menopause that passes, the risk of developing breast cancer rises by 3%. Each additional birth or each 1-year delay in menarche reduces the risk of breast cancer by 5% or 10%, respectively. According to a recent Norwegian cohort study, the risk ratio (HR) between late (35 years) and early (20 years) age at first birth is 1.54.

Lifestyle: Modern lifestyle factors including excessive alcohol use and dietary fat consumption can increase the risk of breast cancer. Alcohol consumption can activate estrogen receptor pathways and increase blood levels of estrogen-related hormones. An intake of 35 to 44 grams of alcohol per day can increase the risk of breast cancer by 32%, according to a meta-analysis based on 53 epidemiological studies, with a 7.1% rise in the RR for every additional 10 grams of alcohol per day. Overconsumption of fat, particularly saturated fat, is linked to mortality (RR=1.3) and a poor prognosis in individuals with breast cancer. The modern western diet contains too much fat.

Prevention: There have been significant advancements in both clinical and theoretical research on breast cancer to date. In comparison to earlier preventative strategies, the current ones including screening, chemoprevention, and biological prevention are more direct and successful. Breast cancer mortality has declined. However, among females aged 20 to 59, breast cancer continues to be the primary cause of cancer death.

Clinical Oncology Case Reports

A peer-reviewed international journal dedicated to clinical and medical oncology and cancer research is called Clinical Oncology Case Reports. Clinical Oncology Case Reports is a high impact multidisciplinary publication with a focus on clinical and medical research (COCR). Everyone who is seriously interested in cancer treatment should read the journal. The book's multidisciplinary approach ensures that readers are brought up to date on current developments in both related and their own fields of study. The Journal's coverage of malignant diseases and their treatments spans radiation therapy, systemic therapy, pathology, diagnostics, and therapy.

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