Brain Cancer


Journal of Brain Research  is a peer reviewed, open access journal considering research on all aspects of Neuroscience, Neurodegenerative diseases.

Brain cancer is a disease of the brain in which cancer cells (malignant cells) arise in the brain tissue (cancer of the brain). Cancer cells grow to form a mass of cancer tissue (tumor) that interferes with brain functions such as muscle control, sensation, memory, and other normal body functions. Tumors composed of cancer cells are called malignant tumors, and those composed of mainly noncancerous cells are called benign tumors.

Cancer cells that develop from brain tissue are called primary brain tumors while tumors that spread from other body sites to the brain are termed metastatic or secondary brain tumors.

Statistics suggest that brain cancer occurs infrequently (1.4% of all new cancer patients per year), so it is not considered to be a common illness and is likely to develop in about 23,770 new people per year with about 16,050 deaths as estimated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Cancer Society.

Only about 5% of brain tumors may be due to hereditary genetic conditions such as neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and a few others.

Types of brain cancers:
 The most common primary brain tumors are usually named for the brain tissue type (including brain stem cancers) from which they originally developed. These are gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, vestibular schwannomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (medulloblastomas).

Gliomas have several subtypes, which include astrocytomas (for example, an astrocytoma is a brain cancer composed of abnormal brain cells known as astrocytes), oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, and choroid plexus papillomas.

Glioblastomas arise from astrocytes and are usually highly aggressive (malignant) tumors; doctors diagnosed Senator John McCain with this form of brain tumor.

These names all reflect different types of cells in the normal brain that can become cancers.

Grades of brain cancers:

Not all brain tumors are alike, even if they arise from the same type of brain tissue. Tumors are assigned a grade depending on how the cells in the tumor appear microscopically.

  • • Grade I: The tissue is benign. The cells look nearly like normal brain cells, and they grow slowly.
  • • Grade II: The tissue is malignant. The cells look less like normal cells than do the cells in a grade I tumor.
  • • Grade III: The malignant tissue has cells that look very different from normal cells. The abnormal cells are actively growing and have a distinctly abnormal appearance (anaplastic).
  • • Grade IV: The malignant tissue has cells that look most abnormal and tend to grow quickly.

Stages of brain cancer:
 Brain cancers are staged (stage describes the extent of the cancer) according to their cell type and grade because they seldom spread to other organs, while other cancers, such as breast or lung cancer, are staged according to so-called TMN staging which is based on the location and spread of cancer cells.

metastatic brain cancer: Cancer cells that develop in a body organ such as the lung (primary cancer tissue type) can spread via direct extension, or through the lymphatic system and/or through the bloodstream to other body organs such as the brain.

Tumors formed by such cancer cells that spread (metastasize) to other organs are called metastatic tumors. Metastatic brain cancer is a mass of cells (tumor) that originated in another body organ and has spread into the brain tissue. Metastatic tumors in the brain are more common than primary brain tumors.

Brain cancer symptoms:

Although there are few early warning signs, the most common signs and symptoms of brain cancer may include one or more of the following:

• Difficulty walking and/or dizziness/vertigo
• Seizures
• Muscle weakness (for example, arm and leg weakness)
• Headaches (persistent and/or severe)
• Other common symptoms that can occur include
• nausea 
• vomiting 
• blurry vision 
• a change in a person's alertness 
• sleepiness 
• mental capacity reduction and/or confusion 
• memory problems 

Journal accepts original manuscripts in the form of research articles, review articles, Clinical reviews, commentaries, case reports, perspectives and short communications encompassing all aspects Neurology or Neuroscience for publication in open access platform.

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Journal of Brain Research
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